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ALDH1A2

ALDH Gene Record


Summary for ALDH1A2
Trivial Names & Synonyms
Database Accession ID's
Molecular Features
Polymorphisms
Substrates and Kinetic Values
Tissue Expression & Cellular Localization
Reference List

ALDH1A2

Summary for ALDH1A2:

ALDH1A2, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase often referred to as RALDH2 is a cytosolic homotetramer (~56.7 kDa subunits) exhibiting complex expression patterns throughout embryonic development. This suggests that ALDH1A2 plays a role in retinoid metabolism during embryonic development where it is considered to be the major retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme during early embryogenesis (10570467) . Study of three of the four retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3) in knockout mice demonstrated ALDH1A2 induced lethal developmental defects owing to defective heart and forebrain development (11744377) (16368932) (14623956) .

ALDH1A2 is much less abundant and expressed in an organ- and tissue-specific manner in the adult mouse tissues, including liver. A recent study has demonstrated ALDH1A2 is expressed in normal prostate epithelia but is down-regulated in prostate cancer. Thus, ALDH1A2 may function as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer and suggests a role of retinoids in the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer. ALDH1A2 may be a susceptible target for tumor suppression (16166285) .

Transgenic mice lacking Aldh1a2 die at mid-gestation without undergoing axial rotation, suggesting the importance of both Aldh1a2 and retinoic acid in embryonic development (10192400) .

 
 

Trivial Names and Synonyms for ALDH1A2:

Aldh1a7,    AV116159,    RALDH 2 (RALDH-2),    RALDH(II),    RalDH2,    RALDH2 (Raldh2),    Retinaldehyde-specific dehydrogenase type 2
 
 

Database Accession ID's for ALDH1A2:

Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Homo sapiens
(Human)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBICCDS10164.1, 10163.1
NCBIEntrez Gene8854
NCBIGenBankNC_000015
NCBIOMIM603687
NCBIUniGene435689
HUGOHGNC15472
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSG00000128918
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_170696, NM_003888, NM_170697
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENST00000347587, ENST00000249750
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIAceViewALDH1A2.aApr07, ALDH1A2.cApr07, ALDH1A2.bApr07
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_733797, NP_003879, NP_733798
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSP00000309623, ENSP00000249750
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtO94788
 
Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Mus musculus
(House mouse)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez Gene19378
NCBIGenBankNC_000075
NCBIUniGene390198, 42016
JLMGI107928
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSMUSG00000013584
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_009022
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENSMUST00000034723
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_033048
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSMUSP00000034723
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtQ62148
 
Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Rattus norvegicus
(Norway rat)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez Gene116676
NCBIGenBankNC_005107
NCBIUniGene10514
MCWRGD620250
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSRNOG00000016042
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_053896
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENSRNOT00000021757
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_446348
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSRNOP00000021757
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtQ63639
 
 
 

Molecular Features for ALDH1A2:

Species  
Homo sapiens
(Human)
Chromosome Locus : 15 q 22.1 (- strand)
 

 
ALDH1A2_v1     (Alternative Splice Variant 1) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v1 :   13 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
NM_003888 3398 NP_003879 518 56724 5.79 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

ENST00000249750 4092 ENSP00000249750 518 56724 5.84 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
 
ALDH1A2_v2     (Alternative Splice Variant 2) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v2 :   12 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 2
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 2
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
NM_170696 3284 NP_733797 480 53060 5.84 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

ENST00000347587 3978 ENSP00000309623 480 53060 5.89 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
 
ALDH1A2_v3     (Alternative Splice Variant 3) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v3 :   11 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 3
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 3
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
NM_170697 3142 NP_733798 422 46137 5.97 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

ALDH1A2.bApr07 3205 ALDH1A2.bApr07 422 46137 5.97 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
 
ALDH1A2_v4     (Alternative Splice Variant 4) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v4 :   12 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 4
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 4
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ALDH1A2.cApr07 3234 ALDH1A2.cApr07 384 42473 6.08 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
 
ALDH1A2_v5     (Alternative Splice Variant 5) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v5 :   13 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 5
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 5
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ALDH1A2.aApr07 3307 ALDH1A2.aApr07 497 54673 6.26 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : Translation by ACEVIEW begins without an initialization codon. ALDH.ORG translation begins at the first ATG codon.

 
Species  
Mus musculus
(House mouse)
Chromosome Locus : 9 42.0 cM (+ strand)
 

 
ALDH1A2_v1     (Alternative Splice Variant 1) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v1 :   14 Click Here for Mus musculus Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Click Here for Mus musculus Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ENSMUST00000034723 2206 ENSMUSP00000034723 518 56626 5.43 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : This Ensembl sequence reports translation of the peptide upstream (~50 bases) compared to the Genbank sequence translation. Both encode the same protein however, the Ensembl exon 1 begins more upstream on exon 1 than the corresponding Genbank Accession (NP_033048).

NM_009022 2204 NP_033048 511 55906 5.84 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
Species  
Rattus norvegicus
(Norway rat)
Chromosome Locus : 8 q 24 (+ strand)
 

 
ALDH1A2_v1     (Alternative Splice Variant 1) Number of Exons for ALDH1A2_v1 :   14 Click Here for Rattus norvegicus Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Click Here for Rattus norvegicus Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ENSRNOT00000021757 2235 ENSRNOP00000021757 518 56640 5.43 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

NM_053896 2240 NP_446348 499 54740 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : An earlier ATG start sequence occurs at position 27 within the same reading frame resulting in a 511 a.a. peptide product.

SNP's : 23 single nucleotide polymorphism(s) identified

Insertions : 1 base insertion(s) identified

Deletions : 1 base deletion(s) identified

 
 
 

Polymorphisms for ALDH1A2:

Currently Under Development
 
 

Substrates, Inhibitors and Enzyme Kinetics for ALDH1A2:

 
 

Tissue Expression & Cellular Localization for ALDH1A2:

Currently Under Development
 
 

Reference List for ALDH1A2:

ALDH1A2 Year Authors Title Journal Pubmed ID
2006 Ribes, Wang, Dollé, Niederreither
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)-mediated retinoic acid synthesis regulates early mouse embryonic forebrain development by controlling FGF and sonic hedgehog signaling. Development 16368932
 
2005 Deak, Dickerson, Linney, Enterline, George, Melvin, Graham, Siegel, Hammock, Mehltretter
Analysis of ALDH1A2, CYP26A1, CYP26B1, CRABP1, and CRABP2 in human neural tube defects suggests a possible association with alleles in ALDH1A2. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 16237707
 
2005 Kim, Lapointe, Kaygusuz, Ong, Li, van de Rijn, Brooks, Pollack
The retinoic acid synthesis gene ALDH1a2 is a candidate tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 16166285
 
2002 Niederreither, Fraulob, Garnier, Chambon, Dollé
Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. Mech Dev 11744377
 
2000 Duester
Families of retinoid dehydrogenases regulating vitamin A function: production of visual pigment and retinoic acid. Eur J Biochem 10880953
 
1999 Haselbeck, Hoffmann, Duester
Distinct functions for Aldh1 and Raldh2 in the control of ligand production for embryonic retinoid signaling pathways. Dev Genet 10570467
 
1999 Niederreither, Subbarayan, Dollé, Chambon
Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for early mouse post-implantation development. Nat Genet 10192400
 
 
 

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