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ALDH2

ALDH Gene Record


Summary for ALDH2
Trivial Names & Synonyms
Database Accession ID's
Molecular Features
Polymorphisms
Substrates and Kinetic Values
Tissue Expression & Cellular Localization
Reference List

ALDH2

Summary for ALDH2:

The ALDH2 gene product is a mitochondrial matrix homotetramer (~56.4 kDa subunits).

Based on the current nomenclature system, ALDH2 should be considered a member of the ALDH1B subfamily (>70% sequence homology) however, it was granted inclusion in the ALDH2 family due to the volume of literature regarding this enzyme as ALDH2.

ALDH2 has a broad expression pattern and is most notably involved in the second step of ethanol metabolism, the oxidation of acetaldehyde.

A large portion of individuals of Far East asian descent (~40%) have a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding ALDH2 (ALDH2*2) leading to a partially inactive form of the enzyme. This results in acetaldehyde accumulation and an alcohol-induced flushing reaction (10606490) , an increased level of response to alcohol and as a consequence, lower rates of alcoholism in this population (7625477) , (11925062) . In the mutant ALDH2 enzyme Glu487 has been replaced by a lysine and does not bind to AMP-sepharose chromatographic medium due to a decreased affinity for NAD+ (7910607) .

More recently, ALDH2 has been identified as a major enzyme responsible for bioactivation of nitroglycerin, used to treat angina and heart failure (17055381) .

 
 

Trivial Names and Synonyms for ALDH2:

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2,    AHD-M1,    Ahd5 (Ahd-5),    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2,    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial,    Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor,    ALDH class 2,    ALDH-E2,    ALDHI,    liver mitochondrial ALDH,    nucleus-encoded mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2
 
 

Database Accession ID's for ALDH2:

Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Homo sapiens
(Human)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBICCDS9155
NCBIEntrez Gene217
NCBIGenBankNC_000012
NCBIOMIM100650
NCBIUniGene436437
HUGOHGNC404
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSG00000111275
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_000690
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENST00000261733
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIAceViewALDH2.aApr07
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_000681
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSP00000261733
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtP05091
 
Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Mus musculus
(House mouse)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez Gene11669
NCBIGenBankNC_000071
NCBIUniGene284446
JLMGI99600
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSMUSG00000029455
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_009656
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENSMUST00000031411
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_033786
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSMUSP00000031411
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtQ544B1, P47738
 
Species Gene-related Accession ID's Transcript-related Accession ID's Protein-related Accession ID's
Rattus norvegicus
(Norway rat)
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez Gene29539
NCBIGenBankNC_005111
NCBIUniGene101781
MCWRGD69219
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - GeneViewENSRNOG00000001344
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIGenBankNM_032416
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - TransViewENSRNOT00000057413, ENSRNOT00000001816
Institute Database Accession No.
NCBIEntrez ProteinNP_115792
EBI, WTSIEnsembl - ProtViewENSRNOP00000054224, ENSRNOP00000001816
EBI, SIB, PIRUniProtP11884
 
 
 

Molecular Features for ALDH2:

Species  
Homo sapiens
(Human)
Chromosome Locus : 12 q 24.2 (+ strand)
 

 
ALDH2_v1     (Alternative Splice Variant 1) Number of Exons for ALDH2_v1 :   13 Click Here for Homo sapiens Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Click Here for Homo sapiens Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ENST00000261733 2398 ENSP00000261733 517 56382 7.05 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

NM_000690 2445 NP_000681 517 56382 6.63 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

ALDH2.aApr07 2633 ALDH2.aApr07 517 56382 6.63 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
Species  
Mus musculus
(House mouse)
Chromosome Locus : 5 1 F-G (- strand)
 

 
ALDH2_v1     (Alternative Splice Variant 1) Number of Exons for ALDH2_v1 :   13 Click Here for Mus musculus Transcript Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Click Here for Mus musculus Peptide Sequences for Alternative Splice Variant 1
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ENSMUST00000031411 1951 ENSMUSP00000031411 519 56538 7.69 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

NM_009656 2207 NP_033786 519 56538 7.53 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

 
Species  
Rattus norvegicus
(Norway rat)
Chromosome Locus : 12 q 16 (+ strand)
 
ALDH2_v?     (Alternative Splice Variant Unknown or To Be Determined) Number of Exons : N/A Click Here for Rattus norvegicus Transcript Sequences for Unknown Variants
Click Here for Rattus norvegicus Peptide Sequences for Unknown Variants
Transcript Length
(b.p.'s)
Peptide Translation Length
(a.a.'s)
M.W.
(Da)
Isoelectric Point Comments
ENSRNOT00000001816 1560 ENSRNOP00000001816 518 56128 7.00 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : Transcript unable to be aligned to genomic DNA. Further analysis for exon structure and sequence integrity required.

ENSRNOT00000057413 1476 ENSRNOP00000054224 490 53144 5.83 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : Incomplete sequence lacking an initialization codon (ATG).

Peptide : Incomplete transcript sequence. Lacking an initialization codon (ATG)

NM_032416 1889 NP_115792 519 56489 6.63 Click Here for Graphical and Tabular Details

Transcript : Transcript does not align to genomic DNA (NC_005111). Numerous SNP Insertions and deletions present. Further analysis required for exon structure and sequence integrity.

 
 
 

Polymorphisms for ALDH2:

Currently Under Development
 
 

Substrates, Inhibitors and Enzyme Kinetics for ALDH2:

 
 

Tissue Expression & Cellular Localization for ALDH2:

Currently Under Development
 
 

Reference List for ALDH2:

ALDH2 Year Authors Title Journal Pubmed ID
2006 Chen, Stamler
Bioactivation of nitroglycerin by the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. Trends Cardiovasc Med 17055381
 
2005 Lassen, Estey, Tanguay, Pappa, Reimers, Vasiliou
Molecular cloning, baculovirus expression, and tissue distribution of the zebrafish aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Drug Metab Dispos 15703303
 
2003 DiFabio, Yanbin, Vasiliou, Thatcher, Bennett
Role of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in nitrate tolerance Mol Pharmacol 14573760
 
2002 Luczak, Elvine-Kreis, Shea, Carr, Wall
Genetic risk for alcoholism relates to level of response to alcohol in Asian-American men and women. J Stud Alcohol 11925062
 
2001 Pappa, Sophos, Vasiliou
Corneal and stomach expression of aldehyde dehydrogenases: from fish to mammals Chem Biol Interact 11306042
 
1999 Wall, Johnson, Horn, Carr, Smith, Schuckit
Evaluation of the self-rating of the effects of alcohol form in Asian Americans with aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms. J Stud Alcohol 10606490
 
1996 Stewart, Malek, Crabb
Distribution of messenger RNAs for aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 in human tissues. J Investig Med 8689400
 
1995 Higuchi, Matsushita, Murayama, Takagi, Hayashida
Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and the risk for alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry 7625477
 
1994 Farrés, Wang, Takahashi, Cunningham, Wang, Weiner
Effects of changing glutamate 487 to lysine in rat and human liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. A model to study human (Oriental type) class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 7910607
 
 
 

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